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Генотоксические биомаркеры у сотрудников патологоанатомических лабораторий, работающих с формальдегидом (систематический обзор)

https://doi.org/10.47470/0016-9900-2020-99-8-792-802

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Аннотация

Введение. Проведён систематический обзор и анализ литературы, посвящённый генотоксическим обследованиям лиц, контактирующих с парами формальдегида (ФА) при работе в патоморфологических лабораториях медицинских учреждений. ФА классифицирован Международным агентством ВОЗ по исследованию рака как канцероген I класса. Опубликован ряд исследований, свидетельствующих о генотоксическом повреждении персонала патологоанатомических лабораторий, работающего с ФА, выявленного с помощью различных цитогенетических методов, использующихся для мониторинга биологических эффектов у людей, в частности, метода по учёту микроядер в лимфоцитах периферической крови и клетках буккального эпителия, метода по учёту хромосомных аберраций и метода «ДНК-комет».

Материал и методы. Поиск литературы проводили до декабря 2019 г. с использованием базы данных научной литературы MedLine/PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed). Ключевые термины поиска включали «formaldehyde laboratory micronuclei», «formaldehyde laboratory chromosomal aberration» или «formaldehyde laboratory DNA comet». Рассматривали полнотекстовые статьи, опубликованные на английском языке в журналах с присвоенными DOI.

Результаты. Во всех исследованиях сообщалось о присутствии паров ФА на рабочем месте, при этом только в половине случаев уровень ФА находился не выше предельно допустимых значений. Средняя экспозиция формальдегидом за 8-часовой рабочий день составила 0,79 ± 0,43 мг/м3. Во всех исследованиях сообщалось о присутствии повышенного уровня исследуемых цитогенетических биомаркеров по сравнению с контролями. Суммарный анализ данных показал более чем 2,5-кратное превышение уровня микроядер в лимфоцитах периферической крови работников лабораторий по сравнению с контрольными группами (8,15 ± 2,57 vs. 3,56 ± 1,15‰; p < 0,05) и более чем 5-кратное превышение в случае уровня микроядер в буккальных эпителиоцитах (0,83 ± 0,09 vs. 0,16 ± 0,01‰; p < 0,05).

Заключение. Таким образом, персонал патоморфологических лабораторий, контактирующий с парами ФА, подвергается потенциальному риску для жизни и здоровья, связанному с отдалёнными последствиями генотоксических воздействий.

Об авторах

Наталья Вахитовна Еремина
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт фармакологии имени В.В. Закусова»
Россия

Кандидат биол. наук, ст. науч. сотр. лаб. лекарственной токсикологии ФГБНУ «НИИ фармакологии им. В.В. Закусова», 125315, Москва.

e-mail: neremina@panacelalabs.com



А. К. Жанатаев
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт фармакологии имени В.В. Закусова»
Россия


А. Д. Дурнев
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт фармакологии имени В.В. Закусова»
Россия


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Для цитирования:


Еремина Н.В., Жанатаев А.К., Дурнев А.Д. Генотоксические биомаркеры у сотрудников патологоанатомических лабораторий, работающих с формальдегидом (систематический обзор). Гигиена и санитария. 2020;99(8):792-802. https://doi.org/10.47470/0016-9900-2020-99-8-792-802

For citation:


Eremina N.V., Zhanataev A.K., Durnev A.D. Genotoxic biomarkers in employees of pathomorphological laboratories working with formaldehyde (systematic review). Hygiene and Sanitation. 2020;99(8):792-802. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.47470/0016-9900-2020-99-8-792-802

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